Building and tagging container images in CI


Been thinking a lot recently about how to manage versioning and deployment using Docker for a small scale containerised solution. It’s different from a traditional release pipeline as the build artifacts are the container images with the latest code and configuration, instead of the CI having a zip of the built application.

In a completely ideal containerised microservice solution all containers are loosely coupled and can be tested and built independently. Their CI configuration can be kept independent as well, with the CI and testing setup for the entire orchestrated solution taking the latest safe versions of the containers and performing integration/smoke tests against test/staging environments.

If your solution is smaller scale and the containers linked together, this is my proposed setup.


Images should be built consistently, so dependencies should be resolved and fixed at point of build. This is done for node with npm shrinkwrap which generates a file fixing the npm install to specific dependency versions. This should be done as part of development each time package.json is updated, to ensure all developers as well as images use the exact same versions of packages.

On each commit to develop the image is built and tagged twice, once with “develop” to tag it as the latest version for develop branch code, and then with the version number in the git repo (“1.0.1”). You cannot currently build with multiple tags, but building images with same content/instructions does not duplicate image storage due to Docker image layers.


The “develop” tagged image is used as the latest current version of the image to be deployed as part of automated builds to the Development environment, in the develop branch docker-compose.yml all referenced images will use that tag.

The version number tagged image, “1.0.1”, is used as a historic fixed version for traceability, so for specific releases the tagged master docker-compose.yml will reference specific versioned images. This means we have a store of built versioned images which can be deployed on demand to re-create and trace issues.

On each significant release, the latest version image will be pushed to the image repository with the tag “latest” (corresponding to the code in the master branch).

Managing data store changes in containers


When creating microservices it’s common to keep their persistence stores loosely coupled so that changes to one service do not affect others. Each service should manage it’s own concerns, be the owner of retrieving/updating it’s data and define how and where it gets it from.

When using a relational database for a store there is an additional problem that each release may require schema/data updates, a known problem of database migration (schema migration/database change management).

There a large number of tools for doing this; flyway, liquibaseDbUp. They allow you to define the schema/data for your service as a series of ordered migration scripts, which can be applied to your database regardless of it’s state as a fresh DB or existing one with production data.

When your container service needs a relational database with a specific schema and you are performing continuous delivery you will need to handle this problem. Traditionally this is handled separately from the service by CI, where a Jenkins/Teamcity task runs the database migration tool before the task to deploy the updated release code for the service. You will have similar problems with containers that require config changes to non-relational stores (redis/mongo etc.).

This is still possible in a containerised deployment, but has disadvantages. Your CI will need knowledge/connection to each containers data store, and run the task for each container with a store. As the number of containers increase this will add more and more complexity into your CI which will need to be aware of all their needs and release changes.

To prevent this from happening the responsibility of updating their persistence store should be on developer for the container itself, as part of the containers definition, code and orchestration details. This allows the developers to define what their persistence store is and how it should be updated each release, leaving CI only responsible for deploying the latest version of the containers.

node_modules/.bin/knex migrate:latest --env development

As an example of this I created a simple People API node application and container, which has a dependency on a mysql database with people data. Using Knex for database migration, the source defines the scripts necessary to setup the database or upgrade it to the latest version. The Dockerfile startup command waits for the database to be available then runs the migration before starting the Node application. The containers necessary for the solution and the dependency on mysql are defined and configured in the docker-compose.yml.

docker-compose up

For a web application example I created People Web node application, that wraps the API and displays the results as HTML. It has a docker-compose.yml that spins up containers for mysql, node-people-api (using the latest image pushed to Docker Hub) and itself. As node-people-api manages it’s own store inside the container node-people-web doesn’t need any knowledge of the migration scripts to setup the mysql database.


Infrastructure as code, containers as artifacts

As a developer, one of the things I love about containers is how fast they are are to create, spin up and then destroy. For rapid testing of my code in production like environments this is invaluable.

But containers offer another advantage, stability. Containers can be versioned, defined with static build artifact copies of the custom components they will host and explicitly versioned dependencies (e.g. nginx version). This allows for greater control in release management, knowing exactly what version of not just the custom code you have on an environment but the infrastructure running it. Your containers become an artifact of your build process.

While managing versions of software has long been standard practise, this isn’t commonly extended to the use of infrastructure as code (environment creation/update by scripts and tools like Puppet). Environments are commonly moving targets, separation of development and operations teams mean software and environment releases are done independently, with environment dependencies and products being patched independently of functionality releases (security patching, version updates etc.). This can cause major regression issues which often can’t be anticipated until it hits pre-production (if you are lucky).

By using containerisation with versioning you can control the release of environmental changes with precise control, something that is very important when dealing with a complex distributed architecture. You can release and test changes to individual servers, then trace back issues to the changes introduced. The containers that make up your infrastructure become build artifacts, which can be identified and updated like any other.

Here’s a sequence diagram showing how this can be introduced into your build process:

Containers as artifacts (1)

At the end of this process you have a fixed release deployed into production, with traceable changes to both custom code and infrastructure. Following this pattern allows upfront testing of infrastructure changes (including developer level) and makes it very difficult to accidentally cause any differences between your test and production environments.

Using Docker to construct a Selenium Grid

When thinking about possible uses for containerisation, one which jumped out at me was web testing. This normally involves large numbers of big, slow and fragile VMs.

I started with making a simple PhantomJS docker container, which removes the necessity of installing PhantomJS on your machine (which can be annoying complex). The image is available on Docker Hub here.

The dream would be using containers to construct a large Selenium grid of different browsers and versions, taking advantage of the performance/reduced size benefits of containers to be able to run a bigger/faster grid than you normally would with VMs. As the containers would be disposable, you could easily start/stop Selenium nodes for browsers when needed (i.e. a set for quick smoke tests and one for more extensive overnight tests). Developers would be able to use the same set of containers and hub scripts, so wouldn’t have to mess around with VMs and scripts to run tests to validate and reproduce issues, making it easier to find issues early.

The main problem is containerisation is currently limited to Linux OS containers only, which means no testing on OS X or Windows, so no Safari and Internet Explorer (who needs to test that, right). These holes can be filled with VMs spun up by Vagrant and added to the Selenium hub, but it’s not an ideal solution. Still, I believe this is a potential solution for small projects which can’t afford Browserstack or Saucelabs licences for testing.

Below are the Docker commands and Selenium tests to call various browsers:

# Run hub
docker run -d -p 4444:4444 --name selenium-hub selenium/hub:2.46.0

# Run browser containers
docker run -d -P --link selenium-hub:hub selenium/node-chrome:2.46.0
docker run -d -P --link selenium-hub:hub selenium/node-firefox:2.46.0
docker run -d --link selenium-hub:hub stevenalexander/node-phantomjs:2.46.0
# Add vagrant VM browser nodes here

With these commands you now have a Selenium Grid running with a number of browser nodes registered and can run tests against the hub using the RemoteWebDriver targeting individual browser/versions. You can modify the containers used to create containers running different versions or add VMs to register IE/Safari/Mobile nodes.

Useful links:

Using Docker for Dev environments

I had put some thought into using Docker locally as part of development, but after a talk about maintaining boxen scripts (used to provision macs according to a common set of requirements for projects) it got me thinking about what you could really do with containers for development environments and flow.

My experience on different projects with development environments has been mostly bad over the years.

Commonly there’s nothing to help with setup, developers just get some (sketchy) documentation about what applications and dependencies they need to run and change the solution. This leads to problems when working in teams, increasing time to get developers started and lots of “works on my machine” environmental differences. Because developers are running everything locally the environment they are building and testing on is nothing like the intended production environment (different dependencies/OS/Architecture etc.), so developers have no visiblity of problems that occur when their code is deployed. This causes the “throwing problems over the wall” gap between developers and operations.

Sometimes there’s a standard development VM image, which is better than manual configuration but also introduces new problems. It’s normally a beast, large in file size and poorly performing (to the point that developers work to avoid using it). It’s also hard to maintain, as no one wants to re-install a multi-gigabyte image, so it tends to become a base image needing manual corrections for updates rather than plug and play environment. It also shares a lot of the same problems with differences from production, as it’s not practical to use virtual machines replicating the production environment/architecture running on a normal laptop/desktop.

Containers offer new possibilities for development environments. When running directly on the host (not inside a virtual machine like boot2docker) it offers near native performance. Containers are small in size, so can be created/destroyed quickly and are very fast to start, meaning you can rebuild your environment per change. Container image definitions and scripts for rebuilding/starting them can be stored in source control, using the same definitions in development, build, test and production environments, reducing the differences between them. Because of the size/performance benefits we can be more ambitious on how far we go in simulating production conditions, introducing load balancing and networking concerns early in development, allowing developers to see these early rather than leaving it all to operations staff.

Below is a diagram showing an example of this setup:

Container development environment diagram

Optionally, containers aren’t just limited to headless processes, you can run GUI applications too like IDEs. This allows pre-configured development tools to be tailored specifically for the project, to quickly allow new developers to start with the same toolset as the rest of the team. Isolating the entire development stack inside containers means developers don’t have to alter their own machine setup to work on a project, reducing startup time and making it easier to switch between projects without rebuilding their machine.

CoreOS Rkt compared to Docker

Looking at CoreOS Rkt to get a comparison with Docker, as quite a few of the experienced operations developers I’ve spoke to about containers have raised concerns with Docker and prefer the pure standardised containers appoach that Rkt (Rocket) is aimed at compared to Dockers propriety format and platform.

Comparison with Docker

Rkt is purely concerned with creating and running containers in isolation securely, it is not attempting to become a wider containerisation platform like Docker. It’s an implementation of the App Container (appc) specification and uses ACI container images from the specification. Rkt can run other types of containers such as Docker images. As of writing it is v0.5.5 and is not recommended for production use.

Docker (as of v1.5.0) does not attempt to implement the appc specification and does not support ACI images. This makes Docker images a open but proprietary format, so users require third party tools to generate ACI images from Docker images to allow their use in other container tools. It offers a large amount of tooling that Rkt cannot offer, such as a public repository for images and tools for integrating with hosting providers. For developers Docker is a easier to use, as there are tools (boot2docker on mac etc.) for using Docker directly from the commandline on the host machine, while with Rkt you need to ssh onto a VM before running any Rkt commands. Docker documentation is better, as is the range of images available.

Rkt is thought as more secure, as it runs daemonless while Docker needs a daemon running as root to manage containers and allocate resources. Rkt also uses a trusted key model for verifying that an image you have downloaded is what you expect and has not been altered by someone.


In practise creating and using Rkt containers is very similar to Docker, simple commandline interface using a JSON container definition file that is like a Dockerfile. The lack of documentation is a problem, as it’s hard to find examples of using Rkt or guides on best practises. Kubernetes has recently announced supporting Rkt for managementing containers instead of Docker, which is great as it gives a choice of what container format/tools you can use.

Rkt is quite immature compared to Docker, right now it would be irresponsible to use it in production. When it reaches v1 and has been used in serious production environments it could well be a better choice than Docker due to it’s strong focus on standards and security. This may be a deciding factor between the two when containerisation becomes more widespread and hosting providers begin offering virtualisation via containers rather than Virtual Machines, to take advantage of the cost/density benefits.

Docker currently has a big advantage in ease of use, documentation and the platform they have made. This makes Docker a much better option to learn about containerisation and try it out. Also many cloud hosting providers are falling over themselves to offer containerisation and right now Docker is the only option, this gives it a huge lead over the alternatives. As there are tools to convert your Docker images into ACI format it’s not a huge lock-in risk to start developing and deploying containerised applications in Docker, as it will be possible to change your mind later.

For developers, I’d recommend you start with Docker to get your head around the containerisation concepts as the documentation is great. But you should be aware that Docker is not the only option. Containerisation has been around for ages and Docker seems to be trying to make itself a way to bridge the gap between IaaS and PaaS, abstracting away important details that as a developer you need to be aware of to make production ready code.

Useful links

Kubernetes authentication and authorisation single pod

This is a description of the steps to deploy a complex microservice solution to Google Cloud Platform using kubernetes as a single Pod.

This is based on my Docker authentication and authorisation solution, which I’ve written about here.


The solution is a web application using microservices to implement authentication and authorisation, consisting of 5 microservices and Nginx with Lua scripting, described here.



  1. Build microservices and copy jar/config into volumes
gradle buildJar
  1. Login to gcloud and set project/zone
gcloud auth login
gcloud config set project PROJECTID
gcloud config set compute/zone europe-west1-b
  1. Build the container images and publish to Google Container Registry

These container images are largely the same as the definitions from the Development Docker Compose file with the exception that the jars/config files are copied into the images to avoid needing mounted volumes.

# Build
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-nginx-lua:latest      -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-nginx-lua .
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-frontend:latest       -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-frontend .
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-authentication:latest -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-authentication .
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-authorisation:latest  -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-authorisation .
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-session:latest        -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-session .
docker build -t stevena/single-pod-person:latest         -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/Dockerfile-person .

# Tag
docker tag stevena/single-pod-nginx-lua
docker tag stevena/single-pod-frontend
docker tag stevena/single-pod-authentication
docker tag stevena/single-pod-authorisation
docker tag stevena/single-pod-session
docker tag stevena/single-pod-person

# Publish
gcloud preview docker push
gcloud preview docker push
gcloud preview docker push
gcloud preview docker push
gcloud preview docker push
gcloud preview docker push
  1. Create the Cluster, Pod and allow external web access
# Create cluster
gcloud alpha container clusters create ms-auth --num-nodes 1 --machine-type g1-small
gcloud config set container/cluster ms-auth

# Pods
gcloud alpha container kubectl create -f kubernetes/single-pod-solution/single-pod.json
# see pod and get external IP from HOST column `gcloud alpha container kubectl get pods`

# Allow external web access
gcloud compute firewall-rules create k8s-ms-auth-node-80 --allow tcp:80 --target-tags k8s-ms-auth-node

# View site by pod external IP

# check pod logs with `gcloud alpha container kubectl log single-ms-auth person`,
# ssh onto node with `gcloud compute ssh k8s-ms-auth-node-1`, access container `sudo docker exec -it CONTAINERID bash`

Clean up

gcloud alpha container clusters delete ms-auth
gcloud compute firewall-rules delete k8s-ms-auth-node-80


This architecture is a single pod running on a single node with all the components. It’s basically the same as running it locally for development and doesn’t offer any horizontal scaling. Didn’t require much changes to the configuration, only updating server names to localhost (containers in a pod can address each other locally). It could be scaled by creating a data persistence pod for a database, updating config to point all the services which need persistence at it, then placing a load balancer in front of the pod and creating multiple nodes hosting the web/data persistence pod.

Going forward I would like to work with volumes, split the services into individual pods/services to allow full scaling and try out separate data persistence.

I noticed a couple of things while trying to get this working:

  • You can’t open firewall access to the pod to non-standard ports (e.g. port 8081), something blocks access to that port outside the node. I ended up ssh’ing on the node and testing these locally.
  • The nodes won’t automatically check the latest version of the image if you update latest and push it to the repository. There is probably some command to force this or you need to name your versions explicitly.